How to confuse someone from the South


1. Say “you guys…”

Don’t you mean “y’all”?

2. Call your cookout a barbeque.

If you’re invited to a “barbeque” up north, don’t expect any actual barbeque to be there. Don’t ask me why, but grilling hamburgers and hot dogs outside is often given the same name as that tangy delicious sauce on some ribs or pulled pork. It should clearly be called a cookout.

3. Say you don’t like mayonnaise.

Mayonnaise is one of our major food groups, right next to fried vegetables and sweet tea. What is the point of a meal without a side of coleslaw? You’re missing out on broccoli salad, egg salad, chicken salad, deviled eggs, and so many other delicious southern staples.

4. Say you don’t own (or know anyone who owns) a truck.

What else do you go muddin’ in? In the south, trucks are one of the most popular types of vehicles, but in the north you can’t find even half as many. What do you have against trucks? Whether you’re a boy or a girl, driving your first truck is a rite of passage down here.

5. Act stunned when we talk to a stranger.

It’s called southern hospitality, and it’s everywhere. We expect friendliness not because people are fake, but because we’re genuinely kind. So when we go to the store and start chatting up a random stranger in line, we don’t expect them to look at us like we’re crazy.

6. Tell us you don’t have snow days.

What do you mean you still go to school if it snows? And your whole town doesn’t shut down, with bread flying off the shelves at the local grocery store like the apocalypse is coming? In the south, we aren’t the best at handling snow. So, you can bet that if there’s snow in the forecast, you’re going to get a day off from school.

7. Tell us you don’t have a car.

Public transportation and walking just aren’t much of a thing down here unless you’re in a large city — not to mention sidewalks don’t even exist in small towns. As much as I would love to, walking to my closest grocery store would take me one hour and five minutes (I just checked). So, if you don’t have a car in the south, you are probably stuck in your house.

8. Forget your koozie.

Who wants a warm beer? Apparently, people who aren’t from the south, because koozies are basically a southern thing. It’s just common sense, really — you can show support for your favorite team, or anything else you want on your koozie, while keeping your canned drink nice and cold.

9. Mutter anything close to the words, “What is Waffle House?”

Where do you go for your midnight waffles? Biscuits and gravy at 3 in the morning? Sunday brunch on a budget? Clearly the answer is Waffle House. While a couple states up north have Waffle House, it’s incredibly popular all over the south. I’ll take my hashbrowns smothered and covered, thank you very much.

10. Say you’re going on a day trip to another state.

In Tennessee, I can drive for seven hours and never leave the state. If I want to go from south to north Texas, that’s 11 long, long hours. So when you tell me that you’ve started your road trip in Vermont and have gone through New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and New York in four hours, I have no idea what you’re talking about.


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It’s essential to carefully craft a questionnaire to reduce survey error and optimize your data. The best way to think about the questionnaire is with the end result in mind.

Start with questions, like: What is my research purpose? What data do I need? How am I going to analyze that data? What questions are needed to best suit these variables?

Once you have a clear idea of the purpose of your survey, you’ll be in a better position to create an effective questionnaire. Here are a few steps to help you get into the right mindset.


The 27 Essex slang words that confuse people outside the county

We don't bat an eyelid when we hear them - but anyone outside of Essex looks at us like we're mad

Some of these were made within the Essex borders (Image: BBC)

If there's any county which could produce its very own dictionary of words, then it is Essex.

For the last few decades, we have collected a whole host of slang words and phrases which make perfect sense to us.

You don't bat an eyelid when someone drops the Baz Vegas bomb, refers to a trip to Chelmo or even declares that their mate is an utter weapon - but people outside of Essex just don't seem to understand.

Some of them are a little rogue, but there's nothing wrong with a bit of slang to lighten the mood.

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Particular words were made famous by the hit reality show, TOWIE, (The Only Way is Essex) which has been on our screens for several years.

Whether the term was used by Joey Essex or your best friend, there are some occasions that a perfect Essex slang word completely changes the dynamic in the room.

It doesn't matter what part of the county you are from, north or south, mid-Essex or the sunny coast, most of these words have been heard by residents from all over.

Here are 27 Essex slang words which make perfect sense to us, but confuse people outside the county:

1. Baz Vegas

We've all said it, we all know it.

It's the leisure and entertainment capital of the British new town of Basildon.

Famous for its restaurants, night clubs and probably, being one of the locations for people with fake tan.

2. Chelmo

It's quite simple - you don't go on a night out in Chelmsford, you go out-out in Chelmo.

Known for being the birthplace of radio but also for a first-class boogie in Popworld.

3. 'Aaaaaaht aaaaht'

Speaking of out-out, it is absolutely crucial that you pronounce it as the appropriate 'aaaaht aaaaaaht'.

If you don't, how will anyone know if you're going just out, or out-out, you see?

4. Saafend

Fancy a trip to Saafend? For those of you not in the know, this is of course our beloved seaside spot, the coastal town of Southend-on-Sea.

It has the longest pleasure pier and three Greggs on the high street. Lovely jubly.

5. Daggerz

Daggerz is of course slang for Dagenham, infamous for being voted the worst place to live in the UK in 2015.

Doesn't stop it having a classic slang nickname though.

There is also the iconic Dagenham market.

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6. Shu'up!

Not the phrase used to tell someone to be quiet, but an exclamation of disbelief.

You only say this if you are truly shocked, so shocked in fact, that you forget to pronounce some of the letters.

7. Clackers

Southend isn't the only seaside town, Clacton-on-Sea is often fondly referred to as Clackers, as a term of endearment and banter.

8. Aite Geez

Hello, hiya, aite geez - all the same thing but one is a sure sign that you're from Essex.

Usually used between men, it's a greeting or a way of agreeing with someone.

9. Sick

For probably the younger generation in Essex, we have all had that moment where you have declared something as 'sick' and had some rather odd looks.

Sick is obviously not the unfortunate byproduct of a heavy weekend, but instead something very, very cool.

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10. Melt

Basically the opposite of cool, if you have been called a melt in Essex, you are a loser.

11. Innit

Probably the most well known slang from Essex is innit, a simple and clear way to say isn't it.

12. Geh'aht!

We don't simply exclaim 'get out!', we say 'geh'aht'.

Much like shut up, it is an expression of shock, which some outsiders may not appreciate.

13. Well Jel

Another memorable Essex slang term - if we tell you we are well jel, we are very jealous.

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14. Butters

Someone outside of Essex may think this is merely just the act of spreading butter on toast, but it also has another Essex slang term that has come up over the years.

You can only hope that it is not directed at you, because if you are butters, you are reportedly not attractive.

15. Reem

Another Essex compliment to dish out - if you are reem, you are very cool.

16. Literally/actually

These are of course, two actual legitimate words. But in Essex, they have developed into a slang that it often used in the middle of sentences or as pauses.

17. Muggy

It may have been a few years since you heard someone say it, but if you're from Essex, you'll know that muggy is a pretty hefty insult.

If you have been 'mugged off' then someone has done you dirty.

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19. Dutty

Perhaps another one that has been tucked away in the back of your head since secondary school, 'dutty' is just a synonym for dirty or scummy.

20. Babs/babes/hun/luv/darlin'

Whether its ironic, sarcastic or a loving nickname for your friends or partner, these phrases are some of Essex most loved slang terms of endearment.

24. Emosh

Simple - we don't get emotional, we get a bit emosh.

25. On fleek/fleeky

A spectacular eyebrow deserves to be crowned with the slang 'on fleek'.

But it's also just a compliment we use to tell each other when someone's outfit or look is on point.

26. Hinchers

We are proud to be the county of Hinchers.

Taken after the one and only Mrs Hinch herself, this is slang for the ones of us who love a good clean. If you Hinch something then you've cleaned it to perfection.

27. Lakey

Or Laaaaaaakeside. Thurrock's Lakeside Shopping Centre is a firm favourite in Essex, which is why it has donned the affectionate slang nickname, Lakey.


How to confuse someone from the South - travels

The Biden administration put the highly anticipated guidelines on hold last week in part over concerns about the wording and the recommendations around quarantining.

People eat at restaurant tables on a street block closed to vehicle traffic to allow social distancing and outdoor dining. | Ted Shaffrey/AP Photo

Updated: 03/08/2021 12:13 PM EST

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released hotly anticipated guidelines for vaccinated people Monday, saying those who have received their Covid-19 shot can socialize with other fully vaccinated individuals indoors without wearing masks or social distancing.

The guidelines, which were originally set for release last week, also say vaccinated people can visit indoors — under the same rules ‚ with unvaccinated people from a single household who are at low risk for severe Covid-19 disease. The CDC recommends vaccinated individuals “refrain” from quarantining and testing if they come into contact with someone with Covid-19 and do not develop symptoms.

The CDC also says vaccinated people should continue to adhere to public health restrictions such as mask wearing and social distancing while in public, particularly while visiting unvaccinated individuals.

“How long vaccine protection lasts and how much vaccines protect against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants are still under investigation,” the guidelines say. “Until more is known and vaccination coverage increases, some prevention measures will continue to be necessary for all people, regardless of vaccination status.”

An earlier draft of the guidelines included a travel section but senior health officials decided not to release that portion of the recommendations at this time, one senior administration official told POLITICO. Advice on whether vaccinated people need to quarantine after exposure to someone with Covid-19 also sparked debate at a White House meeting Friday, one day after the guidelines were originally set for release.


Contents

  • 1 Political background
  • 2 Structure
    • 2.1 Terminology
  • 3 Routes
    • 3.1 Traveling conditions
    • 3.2 Arrival in Canada
  • 4 Folklore
  • 5 Legal and political
  • 6 Criticism
  • 7 Notable people
  • 8 National Underground Railroad Network
  • 9 Inspirations for fiction
  • 10 Contemporary literature
  • 11 See also
  • 12 Notes
  • 13 References
  • 14 Further reading
    • 14.1 Folklore and myth
  • 15 External links

At its peak, nearly 1,000 enslaved people per year escaped from slave-holding states using the Underground Railroad – more than 5,000 court cases for escaped enslaved were recorded – many fewer than the natural increase of the enslaved population. The resulting economic impact was minuscule, but the psychological influence on slave holders was immense. Under the original Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, officials from free states were required to assist slaveholders or their agents who recaptured fugitives, but citizens and governments of many free states ignored the law, and the Underground Railroad thrived.

With heavy lobbying by Southern politicians, the Compromise of 1850 was passed by Congress after the Mexican–American War. It stipulated a more stringent Fugitive Slave Law, ostensibly, the compromise addressed regional problems by compelling officials of free states to assist slave catchers, granting them immunity to operate in free states. [9] Because the law required sparse documentation to claim a person was a fugitive, slave catchers also kidnapped free blacks, especially children, and sold them into slavery. [10] Southern politicians often exaggerated the number of escaped slaves and often blamed these escapes on Northerners interfering with Southern property rights. [11] The law deprived people suspected of being slaves the right to defend themselves in court, making it difficult to prove free status. In a de facto bribe, [12] judges were paid a higher fee ($10) for a decision that confirmed a suspect as an enslaved person than for one ruling that the suspect was free ($5). Many Northerners who might have ignored enslavement issues in the South were confronted by local challenges that bound them to support slavery. This was a primary grievance cited by the Union during the American Civil War, [13] and the perception that Northern States ignored the fugitive slave laws and regulations was a major justification for secession. [14]

The escape network was neither literally underground nor a railroad. (Actual underground railroads did not exist until 1863.) According to John Rankin, "It was so called because they who took passage on it disappeared from public view as really as if they had gone into the ground. After the fugitive slaves entered a depot on that road no trace of them could be found. They were secretly passed from one depot to another until they arrived at a destination where they were able to remain free." [16] It was known as a railroad, using rail terminology such as stations and conductors, because that was the transportation system in use at the time. [17]

The Underground Railroad did not have a headquarters, nor were there published guides, maps, pamphlets, or even newspaper articles. The Underground Railroad consisted of meeting points, secret routes, transportation, and safe houses, all of them maintained by abolitionist sympathizers and communicated by word of mouth. Participants generally organized in small, independent groups, this helped to maintain secrecy because individuals knew some connecting "stations" along the route but knew few details of the escapees' immediate area. People escaping enslavement would move north along the route from one way station to the next. "Conductors" on the railroad came from various backgrounds and included free-born Blacks, white abolitionists, the former enslaved (either escaped or manumitted), and Native Americans. [18] [19] Church clergy and congregations of the North often played a role, especially the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), Congregationalists, Wesleyans, and Reformed Presbyterians, as well as the anti-slavery branches of mainstream denominations which split over the issue, such as the Methodist church and the Baptists. The role of free Blacks was crucial, without it, there would have been almost no chance for fugitives from slavery to reach freedom safely. [20]

Terminology Edit

Members of the Underground Railroad often used specific terms, based on the metaphor of the railway. For example:

  • People who helped enslaved people find the railroad were "agents" (or "shepherds")
  • Guides were known as "conductors"
  • Hiding places were "stations" or "way stations"
  • "Station masters" hid enslaved people in their homes
  • People escaping slavery were referred to as "passengers" or "cargo"
  • Enslaved people would obtain a "ticket"
  • Similar to common gospel lore, the "wheels would keep on turning"
  • Financial benefactors of the Railroad were known as "stockholders" [21]

The Big Dipper (whose "bowl" points to the North Star) was known as the drinkin' gourd. The Railroad was often known as the "freedom train" or "Gospel train", which headed towards "Heaven" or "the Promised Land", i.e., Canada. [22]

William Still, [23] sometimes called "The Father of the Underground Railroad", helped hundreds of enslaved people to escape (as many as 60 a month), sometimes hiding them in his Philadelphia home. He kept careful records, including short biographies of the people, that contained frequent railway metaphors. He maintained correspondence with many of them, often acting as a middleman in communications between people who had escaped slavery and those left behind. He later published these accounts in the book The Underground Railroad: Authentic Narratives and First-Hand Accounts (1872), a valuable resource for historians to understand how the system worked and learn about individual ingenuity in escapes.

According to Still, messages were often encoded so that they could be understood only by those active in the railroad. For example, the following message, "I have sent via at two o'clock four large hams and two small hams", indicated that four adults and two children were sent by train from Harrisburg to Philadelphia. The additional word via indicated that the "passengers" were not sent on the usual train, but rather via Reading, Pennsylvania. In this case, the authorities were tricked into going to the regular location (station) in an attempt to intercept the runaways, while Still met them at the correct station and guided them to safety. They eventually escaped either further north or to Canada, where slavery had been abolished during the 1830s. [24]

To reduce the risk of infiltration, many people associated with the Underground Railroad knew only their part of the operation and not of the whole scheme. "Conductors" led or transported the fugitives from station to station. A conductor sometimes pretended to be enslaved in order to enter a plantation. Once a part of a plantation, the conductor would direct the runaways to the North. Enslaved people traveled at night, about 10–20 miles (16–32 km) to each station. They rested, and then a message was sent to the next station to let the station master know the escapees were on their way. They would stop at the so-called "stations" or "depots" during the day and rest. The stations were often located in basements, [25] barns, [26] churches, [27] or in hiding places in caves [28] and hollowed-out riverbanks. [ citation needed ]

The resting spots where the escapees could sleep and eat were given the code names "stations" and "depots", which were held by "station masters". "Stockholders" gave money or supplies for assistance. Using biblical references, fugitives referred to Canada as the "Promised Land" or "Heaven" and the Ohio River as the "River Jordan", which marked the boundary between slave states and free states. [29]

Traveling conditions Edit

Although the fugitives sometimes traveled on boat or train, [31] they usually traveled on foot or by wagon in groups of one to three escapees. Some groups were considerably larger. Abolitionist Charles Turner Torrey and his colleagues rented horses and wagons and often transported as many as 15 or 20 enslaved people at a time. [32]

Routes were often purposely indirect to confuse pursuers. Most escapes were by individuals or small groups, occasionally, there were mass escapes, such as with the Pearl incident. The journey was often considered particularly difficult and dangerous for women or children. Children were sometimes hard to keep quiet or were unable to keep up with a group. In addition, enslaved women were rarely allowed to leave the plantation, making it harder for them to escape in the same ways that men could. [33] Although escaping was harder for women, some women were successful. One of the most famous and successful conductors (people who secretly traveled into slave states to rescue those seeking freedom) was Harriet Tubman, a woman who escaped slavery. [34] [35]

Due to the risk of discovery, information about routes and safe havens was passed along by word of mouth. Southern newspapers of the day were often filled with pages of notices soliciting information about people escaping slavery and offering sizable rewards for their capture and return. Federal marshals and professional bounty hunters known as slave catchers pursued fugitives as far as the Canada–US border. [36]

Fugitives were not the only black people at risk from slave catchers. With demand for slaves high in the Deep South as cotton was developed, strong, healthy Blacks in their prime working and reproductive years were seen and treated as highly valuable commodities. Both former enslaved people and free Blacks were sometimes kidnapped and sold into slavery, as was Solomon Northup of Saratoga Springs, New York. "Certificates of freedom," signed, notarized statements attesting to the free status of individual Blacks also known as free papers, could easily be destroyed or stolen, so provided little protection to bearers.

Some buildings, such as the Crenshaw House in far southeastern Illinois, are known sites where free Blacks were sold into slavery, known as the "Reverse Underground Railroad". Under the terms of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, when suspected fugitives were seized and brought to a special magistrate known as a commissioner, they had no right to a jury trial and could not testify in their own behalf. Technically, they were guilty of no crime. The marshal or private slave-catcher needed only to swear an oath to acquire a writ of replevin for the return of property.

Congress was dominated by Southern congressmen because the population of their states was bolstered by the inclusion of three-fifths of the number of enslaved people in population totals. They passed the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 because of frustration at having fugitives from slavery helped by the public and even official institutions outside the South. In some parts of the North, slave-catchers needed police protection to exercise their federal authority. Opposition to slavery did not mean that all states welcomed free Blacks. For instance, Indiana, whose area along the Ohio River was settled by Southerners, passed a constitutional amendment that barred free Blacks from settling in that state.

Arrival in Canada Edit

British North America (present-day Canada) was a desirable destination, as its long border gave many points of access, it was farther from slave catchers, and beyond the reach of the United States' Fugitive Slave Acts. Further, slavery ended decades earlier in Canada than in the United States. Britain banned the institution of slavery in present-day Canada (and in most British colonies) in 1833, though the practice of slavery in Canada had effectively ended already early in the 19th century through case law, due to court decisions resulting from litigation on behalf of slaves seeking manumission. [37]

Most former enslaved, reaching Canada by boat across Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, settled in Ontario. More than 30,000 people were said to have escaped there via the network during its 20-year peak period, [38] although U.S. Census figures account for only 6,000. [39] Numerous fugitives' stories are documented in the 1872 book The Underground Railroad Records by William Still, an abolitionist who then headed the Philadelphia Vigilance Committee. [40]

Estimates vary widely, but at least 30,000 enslaved people, and potentially more than 100,000, escaped to Canada via the Underground Railroad. [38] The largest group settled in Upper Canada (Ontario), called Canada West from 1841. [41] Numerous Black Canadian communities developed in Southern Ontario. These were generally in the triangular region bounded by Niagara Falls, Toronto, and Windsor. Several rural villages made up mostly of people freed from slavery were established in Kent and Essex counties in Ontario.

Fort Malden, in Amherstburg, Ontario, was deemed the "chief place of entry" for enslaved people seeking to enter Canada. The abolitionist Levi Coffin, who was known for aiding over 2,000 fugitives to safety, supported this choice. He described Fort Malden as "the great landing place, the principle terminus of the underground railroad of the west." [42] After 1850, approximately thirty people escaping slavery a day were crossing over to Fort Malden by steamboat. [43] : 15 The Sultana was one of the ships, making "frequent round trips" between Great Lakes ports. Its captain, C.W. Appleby, a celebrated mariner, facilitated the conveyance of several fugitive from various Lake Erie ports to Fort Malden. [43] : 110 Other fugitives at Fort Walden had been assisted by William Wells Brown, himself someone who had escaped slavery. He found employment on a Lake Erie steamer, and transported numerous fugitives from slavery from Cleveland to Ontario by way of Buffalo or Detroit. "It is well known", he tells us, "that a great number of fugitives make their escape to Canada, by way of Cleaveland. . The friends of the slave, knowing that I would transport them without charge, never failed to have a delegation when the boat arrived at Cleaveland. I have sometimes had four or five on board at one time." [44]

Another important destination was Nova Scotia, which was first settled by Black Loyalists during the American Revolution and then by Black Refugees during the War of 1812 (see Black Nova Scotians). Important Black settlements also developed in other parts of British North America (now parts of Canada). These included Lower Canada (present-day Quebec) and Vancouver Island, where Governor James Douglas encouraged Black immigration because of his opposition to slavery. He also hoped a significant Black community would form a bulwark against those who wished to unite the island with the United States. [ citation needed ]

Upon arriving at their destinations, many fugitives were disappointed, as life in Canada was difficult. While the British colonies had no slavery after 1834, discrimination was still common. Many of the new arrivals had to compete with mass European immigration for jobs, and overt racism was common. For example, in reaction to Black Loyalists being settled in eastern Canada by the Crown, the city of Saint John, New Brunswick, amended its charter in 1785 specifically to exclude Blacks from practicing a trade, selling goods, fishing in the harbor, or becoming freemen, these provisions stood until 1870. [45]

With the outbreak of the Civil War in the U.S., many black refugees left Canada to enlist in the Union Army. While some later returned to Canada, many remained in the United States. Thousands of others returned to the American South after the war ended. The desire to reconnect with friends and family was strong, and most were hopeful about the changes emancipation and Reconstruction would bring.

Since the 1980s, claims have arisen that quilt designs were used to signal and direct enslaved people to escape routes and assistance. According to advocates of the quilt theory, ten quilt patterns were used to direct enslaved people to take particular actions. The quilts were placed one at a time on a fence as a means of nonverbal communication to alert escaping slaves. The code had a dual meaning: first to signal enslaved people to prepare to escape, and second to give clues and indicate directions on the journey. [46]

The quilt design theory is disputed. The first published work documenting an oral history source was in 1999, and the first publication of this theory is believed to be a 1980 children's book. [47] Quilt historians and scholars of pre-Civil War (1820-1860) America have disputed this legend. [48] There is no contemporary evidence of any sort of quilt code, and quilt historians such as Pat Cummings and Barbara Brackman have raised serious questions about the idea. In addition, Underground Railroad historian Giles Wright has published a pamphlet debunking the quilt code.

Similarly, some popular, nonacademic sources claim that spirituals and other songs, such as "Steal Away" or "Follow the Drinking Gourd", contained coded information and helped individuals navigate the railroad. They have offered little evidence to support their claims. Scholars tend to believe that while the slave songs may certainly have expressed hope for deliverance from the sorrows of this world, these songs did not present literal help for runaway slaves. [49]

The Underground Railroad inspired cultural works. For example, "Song of the Free", written in 1860 about a man fleeing slavery in Tennessee by escaping to Canada, was composed to the tune of "Oh! Susanna". Every stanza ends with a reference to Canada as the land "where colored men are free". Slavery in Upper Canada (now Ontario) was outlawed in 1793, in 1819, John Robinson, the Attorney General of Upper Canada, declared that by residing in Canada, black residents were set free, and that Canadian courts would [50] protect their freedom. Slavery in Canada as a whole had been in rapid decline after an 1803 court ruling, and was finally abolished outright in 1834.

When frictions between North and South culminated in the Civil War, many Blacks, both enslaved and free, fought for the Union Army. [51] Following Union victory in the Civil War, on December 6, 1865, the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution outlawed slavery. [52] Following its passage, in some cases the Underground Railroad operated in the opposite direction, as fugitives returned to the United States. [53]

Frederick Douglass was a writer, statesman, and had escaped slavery. He wrote critically of the attention drawn to the ostensibly secret Underground Railroad in his seminal autobiography, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave (1845):

I have never approved of the very public manner in which some of our western friends have conducted what they call the Underground Railroad, but which I think, by their open declarations, has been made most emphatically the upperground railroad.

He went on to say that, although he honors the movement, he feels that the efforts at publicity serve more to enlighten the slave-owners than the slaves, making them more watchful and making it more difficult for future slaves to escape. [54]

  • John Brown
  • Owen Brown (father)
  • Owen Brown (son)
  • Samuel Burris
  • Obadiah Bush
  • Levi Coffin
  • Elizabeth Rous Comstock
  • George Corson[55][56]
  • Moses Dickson[57]
  • Frederick Douglass[58][59]
  • Asa Drury
  • George Hussey Earle Sr.
  • Calvin Fairbank
  • Bartholomew Fussell
  • Matilda Joslyn Gage
  • Thomas Galt[60]
  • Thomas Garrett[61]
  • Sydney Howard Gay[62]
  • Josiah Bushnell Grinnell
  • Frances Harper
  • Laura Smith Haviland[63]
  • Lewis Hayden[64]
  • John Hunn[65]
  • Roger Hooker Leavitt
  • Jermain Wesley Loguen[66]
  • Samuel Joseph May[67]
  • John Berry Meachum
  • Mary Meachum[68]
  • William M. Mitchell[69]
  • Solomon Northup[70]
  • John Parker[71]
  • Mary Ellen Pleasant
  • John Wesley Posey[72]
  • Amy and Isaac Post
  • John Rankin[73]
  • Alexander Milton Ross
  • David Ruggles[74]
  • Gerrit Smith[75]
  • George Luther Stearns
  • William Still[76]
  • Charles Turner Torrey[77]
  • William Troy
  • Harriet Tubman[78]
  • John Van Zandt
  • Martha Coffin Wright
  • John Ton

Following upon legislation passed in 1990 for the National Park Service to perform a special resource study of the Underground Railroad, [79] in 1997, the 105th Congress introduced and subsequently passed H.R. 1635 - National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Act of 1998, which President Bill Clinton signed into law in 1998. [80] This act authorized the United States National Park Service to establish the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom program to identify associated sites, as well as preserve them and popularize the Underground Railroad and stories of people involved in it. The National Park Service has designated many sites within the network, posted stories about people and places, sponsors an essay contest, and holds a national conference about the Underground Railroad in May or June each year. [81]

The Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad National Historical Park, which includes Underground Railroad routes in three counties of Maryland's Eastern Shore and Harriet Tubman's birthplace, was created by President Barack Obama under the Antiquities Act on March 25, 2013. [82] Its sister park, the Harriet Tubman National Historical Park in Auburn, New York, was established on January 10, 2017 and focuses on the later years of Tubman's life as well as her involvement with the Underground Railroad and the abolition movement. [83]


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